A chokehold, choke, stranglehold or, in Judo, shime-waza (Japanese: 絞技; English: constriction technique)[1] is a general term for a grappling hold that critically reduces or prevents either air (choking)[2] or blood (strangling) from passing through the neck of an opponent. The restriction may be of one or both and depends on the hold used and the reaction of the victim. The lack of blood or air often leads to unconsciousness or even death if the hold is maintained.